9th Grade Common Core Vocab


achievement (n.): an outstanding thing done successfully typically by effort, courage, or skill

adapt (v.): to change

agriculture (n.): farming

archeologist (n.): a person who studies prehistoric peoples and their cultures by analysis of their artifacts, inscriptions, monuments, etc


bias (n.): the influence that one’s perspective has on their opinion

belief system (n.): a set of ideas and practices that help explain the origins of life, what happens after people die, and how to live a good life (note: all religions are belief systems, but not all belief systems are religions)

Brahman (n.): single unifying spirit in Hindu belief


categorize (v.): to place things in groups based on similarities

centralized (v.): concentrate control of an activity or organization under a single authority

characteristic (n.): a feature or quality of something or someone

codify (v.): to reduce (laws, rules, etc.) to a systematically arranged collection of laws, rules, or regulations.

collapse (v.): to break down, or become weak

compare (v.): to examine two or more things and identify their similarities and differences

conflict (n.): a serious disagreement or argument

context (n.): the setting for an event and the circumstances that led to it.

cooperation (n.): the process of working together

crops (n.): plants grown on a farm

culture (n.): the language, ideas, inventions, and art of a particular group of people


decentralized (v.): transfer authority away from central government to local government.

dharma (n.): in Hinduism, the moral and religious duties that are expected of an individual.

divergent (v.): to move, lie, or extend in different directions from a common point; branch off.

document (n.): Something that is written, printed, or electronic that provides information or evidence

dwelling (n.): a structure in which someone lives

dynasty (n.): a series of rulers from the same family or group


economist (n.): an expert in economics

Eightfold Path (n.): comprising eight aspects in which an aspirant must become practiced: right views, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, and concentration

empire (n.): a group of once separate areas ruled by a single person or government

enduring (a.): continuing or long-lasting

enduring issue (n.): is a challenge or problem that a society has faced and debated or discussed across time. An enduring issue is one that many societies have attempted to address with varying degrees of success.

environment (n.): the area around us in which we live

evidence (n.): something that gives proof of or a reason to believe something

Equator (n.): An imaginary circle around the Earth, equidistant from the North and South Poles. It is zero degrees latitude


fertile (adj.): able to produce farm crops or other plant life

feudalism (n.): the dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants /serfs were obliged to live on their lord’s land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection.

filial piety (n.): a virtue of respect for one’s parents, elders, and ancestors

Five Pillars (n.): are five basic acts in Islam, considered mandatory by believers and are the foundation of Muslim life

Four Noble Truths (n.): the four central beliefs containing the essence of Buddhist teaching


geographic feature (n.): naturally occurring landform, body of water, or ecosystem

government (n.): the group of people that has power to make laws and important decisions for a community, state, or nation


hajj (n.): the Muslim pilgrimage (religious journey) to Mecca that takes place in the last month of the year, and that all Muslims are expected to make at least once during their lifetime

Hegira (n.): The flight of Mohammed from Mecca to Median which was instrumental to the founding of the religion of Islam. Occurs in 622 ACE, which dates the founding of Islam

hemispheres (n.): any half of the Earth’s surface

historian (n.): a person who writes history

history (n.): an account of the past constructed from evidence. This account of the past differs based on one’s perspective.


innovation (n.): a change, a new method or idea

interconnectedness (n.): is the state of having connections or relationships with other people

interdependence (n.): the quality or condition of being mutually reliant on each other

invade (v.): to enter like an enemy

issue (n.): an important topic or problem for debate or discussion



karma (n.): In Hinduism, actions in this life resulting from the consequences of a previous life’s actions


latitude (n.): lines of equal distance measured north and south of the Equator

longitude (n.): The curving distance east or west of the Prime Meridian that stretches from the North Pole to the South Pole


manoralism (n.): economic portion of feudalism where all aspects of life were centered on the lord’s manor including peasant villages, a church, farm land, a mill, and the lord’s castle or manor house.

Messiah (n.): according to the Hebrew Bible, an anointed king who will lead the Jews back to the land of Israel and establish justice in the world. According to the Christians, the Messiah was Jesus Christ

modify (v.): to change

monotheism (n.): the belief in one god or goddess


nirvana (n.): In Buddhism, union with universe and release from the cycle of death and rebirth



perspective (n.): a person’s role in an event

political scientist (n.): a person who studies political institutions and the principles and conduct of government

polytheism (n.): the belief in many gods or goddesses

power (n.): the ability to direct or influence the behavior of others or what happens

power vacuum (n.): a condition that exists when someone has lost control of something and no one has replaced them.

Prime Meridian (n.): The meridian at zero degrees longitude



reform (v.): to make changes in (something, typically a social, political, or economic institution or practice) in order to improve it.

reincarnation (n.): the rebirth of a soul into another body.  Hinduism and Buddhism share this belief

reliable (adj.): capable of being trusted; consistent

revolution (n.): a great change from things in the past

river valley (n.): the area of land nearby and parallel to a river


scarcity (n.): the state of not having enough of something

secular (a.): denoting attitudes, activities, or other things that have no religious or spiritual basis.

settlement (n.): a place where people start a new place to live

sharia (n.): The Islamic laws which regulates all aspects of life including, moral behavior, family life, business dealings, and government

social classes (n.): groupings of people in a society based usually based on wealth, religion, ethnicity, or other factors

social mobility (n./v.):  the movement of individuals, families, households, or other categories of people within or between layers or tiers in an open system of social structures.

sociologist (n.): a person studies of the origin, development, organization, and functioning of human society

source (n.): a person, place, or thing from which something comes; in history sources are usually documents written by people from the past but could also be objects from the past


Ten Commandments (n.): are a set of biblical laws relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and Christianity

trade (v./n.): (v.) to exchange something for something else, (n.) the act of exchanging something for something else

turning point (n.): an event that leads to lasting change


unify (v.): to bring together as a single unit

urban (adj.): relating to a city



wealth (n.): a lot of valuable possessions or money