achievement (n.): an outstanding thing done successfully typically by effort, courage, or skill
adapt (v.): to change
agriculture (n.): farming
archeologist (n.): a person who studies prehistoric peoples and their cultures by analysis of their artifacts, inscriptions, monuments, etc
bias (n.): the influence that one’s perspective has on their opinion
belief system (n.): a set of ideas and practices that help explain the origins of life, what happens after people die, and how to live a good life (note: all religions are belief systems, but not all belief systems are religions)
Brahman (n.): single unifying spirit in Hindu belief
categorize (v.): to place things in groups based on similarities
centralized (v.): concentrate control of an activity or organization under a single authority
characteristic (n.): a feature or quality of something or someone
codify (v.): to reduce (laws, rules, etc.) to a systematically arranged collection of laws, rules, or regulations.
collapse (v.): to break down, or become weak
compare (v.): to examine two or more things and identify their similarities and differences
conflict (n.): a serious disagreement or argument
context (n.): the setting for an event and the circumstances that led to it.
cooperation (n.): the process of working together
crops (n.): plants grown on a farm
culture (n.): the language, ideas, inventions, and art of a particular group of people
decentralized (v.): transfer authority away from central government to local government.
dharma (n.): in Hinduism, the moral and religious duties that are expected of an individual.
divergent (v.): to move, lie, or extend in different directions from a common point; branch off.
document (n.): Something that is written, printed, or electronic that provides information or evidence
dwelling (n.): a structure in which someone lives
dynasty (n.): a series of rulers from the same family or group
economist (n.): an expert in economics
Eightfold Path (n.): comprising eight aspects in which an aspirant must become practiced: right views, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, and concentration
empire (n.): a group of once separate areas ruled by a single person or government
enduring (a.): continuing or long-lasting
enduring issue (n.): is a challenge or problem that a society has faced and debated or discussed across time. An enduring issue is one that many societies have attempted to address with varying degrees of success.
environment (n.): the area around us in which we live
evidence (n.): something that gives proof of or a reason to believe something
Equator (n.): An imaginary circle around the Earth, equidistant from the North and South Poles. It is zero degrees latitude
fertile (adj.): able to produce farm crops or other plant life
feudalism (n.): the dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants /serfs were obliged to live on their lord’s land and give him homage, labor, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection.
filial piety (n.): a virtue of respect for one’s parents, elders, and ancestors
Five Pillars (n.): are five basic acts in Islam, considered mandatory by believers and are the foundation of Muslim life
Four Noble Truths (n.): the four central beliefs containing the essence of Buddhist teaching
geographic feature (n.): naturally occurring landform, body of water, or ecosystem
government (n.): the group of people that has power to make laws and important decisions for a community, state, or nation
hajj (n.): the Muslim pilgrimage (religious journey) to Mecca that takes place in the last month of the year, and that all Muslims are expected to make at least once during their lifetime
Hegira (n.): The flight of Mohammed from Mecca to Median which was instrumental to the founding of the religion of Islam. Occurs in 622 ACE, which dates the founding of Islam
hemispheres (n.): any half of the Earth’s surface
historian (n.): a person who writes history
history (n.): an account of the past constructed from evidence. This account of the past differs based on one’s perspective.
innovation (n.): a change, a new method or idea
interconnectedness (n.): is the state of having connections or relationships with other people
interdependence (n.): the quality or condition of being mutually reliant on each other
invade (v.): to enter like an enemy
issue (n.): an important topic or problem for debate or discussion
karma (n.): In Hinduism, actions in this life resulting from the consequences of a previous life’s actions
latitude (n.): lines of equal distance measured north and south of the Equator
longitude (n.): The curving distance east or west of the Prime Meridian that stretches from the North Pole to the South Pole
manoralism (n.): economic portion of feudalism where all aspects of life were centered on the lord’s manor including peasant villages, a church, farm land, a mill, and the lord’s castle or manor house.
Messiah (n.): according to the Hebrew Bible, an anointed king who will lead the Jews back to the land of Israel and establish justice in the world. According to the Christians, the Messiah was Jesus Christ
modify (v.): to change
monotheism (n.): the belief in one god or goddess
nirvana (n.): In Buddhism, union with universe and release from the cycle of death and rebirth
perspective (n.): a person’s role in an event
political scientist (n.): a person who studies political institutions and the principles and conduct of government
polytheism (n.): the belief in many gods or goddesses
power (n.): the ability to direct or influence the behavior of others or what happens
power vacuum (n.): a condition that exists when someone has lost control of something and no one has replaced them.
Prime Meridian (n.): The meridian at zero degrees longitude
reform (v.): to make changes in (something, typically a social, political, or economic institution or practice) in order to improve it.
reincarnation (n.): the rebirth of a soul into another body. Hinduism and Buddhism share this belief
reliable (adj.): capable of being trusted; consistent
revolution (n.): a great change from things in the past
river valley (n.): the area of land nearby and parallel to a river
scarcity (n.): the state of not having enough of something
secular (a.): denoting attitudes, activities, or other things that have no religious or spiritual basis.
settlement (n.): a place where people start a new place to live
sharia (n.): The Islamic laws which regulates all aspects of life including, moral behavior, family life, business dealings, and government
social classes (n.): groupings of people in a society based usually based on wealth, religion, ethnicity, or other factors
social mobility (n./v.): the movement of individuals, families, households, or other categories of people within or between layers or tiers in an open system of social structures.
sociologist (n.): a person studies of the origin, development, organization, and functioning of human society
source (n.): a person, place, or thing from which something comes; in history sources are usually documents written by people from the past but could also be objects from the past
Ten Commandments (n.): are a set of biblical laws relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and Christianity
trade (v./n.): (v.) to exchange something for something else, (n.) the act of exchanging something for something else
turning point (n.): an event that leads to lasting change
unify (v.): to bring together as a single unit
urban (adj.): relating to a city
wealth (n.): a lot of valuable possessions or money